During the last years, the childhood routine vaccination has become a divisive and politically salient topic in Italy. During the spring 2017, for example, the Lorenzin decree (No. 73 of 2017) that contained urgent provisions on vaccination prevention had divided public opinion and national political forces. In particular, both the League and the Five Star Movement immediately opposed to the introduction of 10 mandatory vaccinations. Moreover, the routine child immunization topic was one again at the centre of the political debate during the summer 2018. The aim of this article is to present the contours of the problem related to the childhood vaccinations in Italy, and to reconstruct the current debate on mandatory vaccinations. It is not yet clear how the newly elected yellow-green government intends to tackle the problem: in the conclusions we will try to formulate some hypotheses about it.